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文章来源:SEO    发布时间:2019-09-16 08:15:00  【字号:      】

www.00rfd.com_www.33rfd.com-【经营以下网站】ForeigncapitalflowstoChinaareexpectedtorisefromMondayafteraportionofthenation'snearly-trillionofonshorebondswereincludedinakeyglobalindex.OnMonday,China'srenminbi-denominatedgovernmentandpolicybanksecuritieswereincludedintheBloombergBarclaysGlobalAggregateIndex,aglobalfixed-incomeinvestmentbenchmark,whichcouldtriggermorecapitalinflowsintothecountryandprovidestabilitytocurrencyandfundborrowers.GlobalbankshavepredictedthattheBloombergBarclaysindexinclusionwillattract0billionto0billionofoverseasfundsforthenextfiveyears.Morethan67percentofthemarketparticipantsinAsiaarelikelytoincreasetheirinvestmentinChineseonshorebondsthisyear,drivenlargelybytheindexinclusion,saidarecentsurveyfromBloomberg,theUS-basedfinancialinformationprovider.TheStateAdministrationofForeignExchangesaidonFridaythatimprovingconvertibilityofthecapitalaccountwouldbeoneofthekeytasksthisyearsoastograduallyachievefreecross-bordercapitalflowsandfurtheropenthebondmarket.BloombergChairmanPeterGrauertoldChinaDailyinanexclusiveinterviewaweekagothattheindexinclusionwillmaketheChinesebondmarketmoreattractivetoglobalinvestorsandbringinmoreliquidity.Heexpectsmorepolicymeasurestobetakeninthesubsequentyears.ThesemeasuresincludeimprovingChina'screditratingssystemandcorporatedisclosurelevels,launchingnewindexproducts,suchasbondexchange-tradedfunds,andexpandinghedgingtoolstomanageforeignexchangeandinterestrisks,saidGrauer.Aftera20-monthprocess,therenminbi-denominatedgovernmentandpolicybankbondswillrepresentabout6to7percentoftheindex'scomponents,hesaid.Accordingtothecentralbank,China'sonshorebondmarketworthwas88trillionyuan(.12trillion)bytheendofFebruary."InternationalinvestorswanttoparticipateinthegrowthoftheChineseeconomy.Onewaytheycandothatisbyinvestinginfixed-incomeinstruments,"hesaid.Besides,theindexwillallowglobalinvestorstocompareperformancewiththeoverallsituation,akeyglobalbenchmark.Currently,China's10-yeartreasuryyieldsarehigherthanthatintheUnitedStates,GermanyandJapan,andtheirreturnsarehigherthanothereconomieswithsimilarcreditratings.Thatcoulddriveinvestordemandandprovidediversificationopportunitiestoglobalinvestors,accordingtoGrauer.InvestorsintheUnitedStateshaveconfidenceintheChinesefinancialmarket,hesaid."Ifyouwanttoplayontheglobalstage,youshouldhaveastakeonthegroundinChinaandbeagoodcorporatecitizenwithalong-termviewaboutSino-USrelations."IbelievetheopeningofChina'sfinancialmarketmaybeoneofthebiggestchangesinthehistoryofglobalcapitalmarkets,andoneofthemostexciting."TheinclusionofChinesedomesticdebtintheindexcouldpotentiallyleadtoabouttrillionoffundinflowsintotheChineseonshorebondmarket,accordingtoIvanChung,associatemanagingdirectorofMoody'sInvestorsService,aglobalratingscompany.BytheendofJanuary,foreignholdingsofChinesedomesticbondstotaled1.75trillionyuan,whichwasequivalentto2percentoftotaloutstandingonshorebonds,accordingtoMoody'sdata."AsinvestorsparticipateincreasinglyinandunderstandbettertheChineseonshorebondmarket,theywillfeelmorecomfortableincreasingtheirrenminbi-denominatedassetallocations,andexpandingtheirinvestmentstoothercreditbondslikemunicipalbonds,corporatebondsandasset-backedsecurities,"saidChung.Theamountofgovernmentandpolicybankbondsincustodyaccountstotaled47.86trillionyuanbytheendofFebruary,accordingtodatafromtheState-ownedclearinghouseChinaCentralDepositoryandClearing.Comparedwithtreasuriesandpolicybankbonds,Chinesecorporatebondsarenotsoattractivesofarfortheforeigninvestor,giventhecurrentlevelofcorporatedisclosureandgovernancequality.Concernsonpotentialdefaultrisksmighthavediscouragedthemtoincreaseholdingsinassetallocations.ZhouXiaochuan,formercentralbankgovernor,saidattheBoaoForumforAsiathatasChinaisfurtheropeningthetrilliononshorebondmarket,foreigninstitutionswillparticipatemoreintheChinesebondmarket,andtheywillincreaseinterestinunderwritingcorporatebonds.Theforeignexchangeregulatorshowedthatin2018,thenetinflowsofforeigncapitalintotheonshorebondmarketstoodat.7billion,upby1.4timesfromthelevelseenin2017."It(theinclusion)indicatestheorderlyopening-upoftheChinesecapitalmarket,andtheimprovementoffinancialmarketinfrastructure,"saidtheSAFE2018annualinternationalbalancereportreleasedonFriday.AChinaPostcourierdeliversparcelsonamotorcycleinNakarzecounty,Tibetautonomousregion.(Photo/Xinhua)Highaltitude,bitingcoldmakeitoneofthemosthostiletransportroutesonearthStartingfromthecityofGolmudinnorthwesternChina'sQinghaiprovince,theQinghai-TibetHighwaywindssouththroughthemightyKunlunMountainsandbesidetheChumarandTuotuorivers.Everyweek,GeJun,acourierforState-ownedChinaPost'sGolmudbranch,drivesagreenvancarryingparcelsalongtheroutebetweenGolmudandthetownofDangla,alsoinQinghai,Thedeliveryroute,launchedin2009,crossesavastlandscapeofice,snow,mountainsandriversinanareawithanaveragealtitudeof4,500meters."Oneroundtripontherouteisabout900kilometers,andsofarIhavecoveredabout450,000km,"the43-year-oldsaid."ThedistancebetweenEarthandthemoonis380,000km,whichmeansIhavealreadylandedonthemooninthatsense!"Special:TheZhuhaisectionoftheHongKong-Zhuhai-MacaoBridgeinGuangdongProvince.(PhotobyZhangYouqiong/ForChinaDaily)The"OutlineDevelopmentPlan"forGuangdong-HongKong-MacaoGreaterBayArea,releasedrecently,aimstomaketheGBAaworldclassscienceandtechnologyinnovationcenter.ButhowcanGuangdongprovince,andtheHongKongandMacaospecialadministrativeregions,whichhavedifferentpoliticalsystemsand,toacertainextent,cultures,collaborateseamlesslytocreatesuchaninnovationcenterWebelievethatwhilethemarketwillbeakeydrivingforcefortheGBA'sdevelopment,thegovernmenthastoplaythekeyroleofcoordinatorandadministrativeguide.Themarketdoesplayavitalroleineconomicdevelopment,butavisionaryanddeterminedgovernmentisneededtosupplementthemarketandensurecoordinateddevelopment.First,agovernment-coordinatedplanwillpreventtheduplicationofinfrastructurefacilitiesandcut-throatcompetitionintheneighboringcities.Andmutualleveragingandinter-citycollaborationwillcreateadditionalvalueforallthethreeregionsgiventhenatureoftheirrespectiveeconomies.TheTokyoBayArea,too,facedasimilarchallenge,whichtheJapanesegovernmenttackledthroughacoordinatedplan.ThesameistruefortheSanFranciscoBayArea.Butinthelatter'scase,NGOssuchastheBayAreaCouncil,ratherthantheUnitedStatesfederalgovernment,helpedcoordinatecross-countyinfrastructureprojectssuchasrailwaysandportswiththesupportofthecountygovernments.Second,technologyandinnovationarevitalareasthegovernmentsofGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoshouldplayanimportantrolein.Theyshouldfundresearchinhighereducation,withoutwhichbuddingtalentscannotbetapped.Andsincetechnologicalinnovationprojectscarrygreatfinancialrisks,thegovernmentsshouldshoulderamajorpartofthoserisksbyactingasdefactoinsurers.Helpingentrepreneurstogetloansandprovidingthemwithfruitfuladvicearetwoareasinwhichthegovernmentsshouldplayacriticalrole.Bysodoing,theycanactasacatalystfortheGBA'seconomicgrowth.Financeisthebloodofanymodernenterprise,moresoforstart-ups.Butundertheexistingsystem,banksandfinancialinstitutionsintheGBAmaynotprovideloanstostart-upsbecausestart-upsareusually"lightinassets".Ofcourse,start-upscanreceivefundingfromventurecapitalcompanies.Butventurecapitalcompaniesusuallylookforveryhighreturnwithinafixedperiodoftime,whichnotallstart-upscanguarantee.Also,somejointventurecompaniesmaydemandequityinstart-upseitherintheformofconvertibleloansordirectequityinvestment,whichmanystart-upsmaynotagreetoforfearoflosingcontroloftheirbusinesses.Toovercomethesedifficulties,thegovernmentsofGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoshouldsupplementtheirsupportmodelssuchasgrants,incubationandindustryparksandtaxincentivesbyestablishingaplatformforfinancingwherethegovernmentshoulderssomeoftheriskandprovidesco-investment.Theycouldbeginbyprofessionallyassessingthedevelopmentopportunitiesandmarketpotentialofthecompanies,whichwillnotonlyhelpthestart-upstoovercometheirfinancialchallenges,butalsoinvestinemergingindustriesintheregion.Thegovernmentsshouldalsotreatcarefullywhenitcomestotakingmeasurestobridgetheoldindustrieswiththenewonesandprovideguidanceandincentivesforthetwotoworktogether.AttheendofthedaythegovernmentsandthemarketshouldnotberegardedastwoideologicallyopposingforcesfortheGBA.InarecentarticleinTheNewYorkTimes,JamalleBouiehaswritten:"Theinstitutionswhichprovidehealth,educationandwelfareservicesarewhollyexemptfromthemarket.Therighttoparticipateindirectmanagementoftheworkunitsoperatinginthemarketisderivedfromlabor.Therighttoparticipateindirectmanagementoftheworkunitsexemptwhollyorpartlyfromthemarketisderivedproportionallyfromlabor,ownership,andconsumptionoftheprovidedservicesandutilities."Theonlycomponent"whollyexemptfromthemarket"intheGBA'sinitialphaseshouldbegovernmentplanning,withoutwhichtheGBAcannotdevelopintoascienceandtechnologyinnovativecenter.WitmanHungisamemberoftheacademiccommitteeofChinaSilkRoadiValleyResearchInstitute;andLiangHaimingisthedeanofHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstituteandchairmanoftheChinaSilkRoadiValleyResearchInstitute.Theviewsdon'tnecessarilyrepresentthoseofChinaDaily.

TouristsviewtheautumnsceneryattheMutianyuGreatWallinBeijing,capitalofChina,Oct.28,2018.(Xinhua/ChenYehua)PeopleintheSanFranciscoBayAreacontinuetoshowagrowinginterestinvisitingChinaandexploringthecountry'sculture,history,naturalwondersandlifestyles,saidtouroperatorsspecializedintheU.S.regionMonday.Atthejust-concludedannualBayAreaTravelandAdventureShowinSantaClara,Californiaovertheweekend,manyvisitorsstoppedattheboothofAlexWang,ownerofatravelagency.Theytookbrochuresoraskedhimquestionsaboutthetravelitinerariesthecompanyprovided."Wehaveattendedtheshowforseveralyearstopromoteourtravelproducts.There'sanincreasinginterestfromAmericanpeople,includingChineseAmericansintheBayArea,"saidWang,presidentofChinatour.comInternationalInc,aSouthernCalifornia-basedtouroperator.WithabigpictureofChina'sTempleofHeavenhangingattheboothasbackground,Wanghandedoutthousandsofbrochuresandflyersatthetwo-dayexhibitionovertheweekend."Weprovidebothhigh-endluxurytoursandbudgettoursforyoungpeople,"hesaid."Thoseretiredcustomerstendtochooselonghaultours,suchasYangtzeRivercruise,whichisverypopular.Youngpeopleareusuallyattractedtoshorttours,suchasweek-longtourtoBeijing,ShanghaiandXi'an."TheBayAreaTravelandAdventureShow,whichhasbeenheldfornineyearsintheregion,isamajorexhibitionfortouriststofindinformationabouttheirdesireddestinations.Theeventisprojectedtoattractbetween8,000and9,000peoplethisyear,accordingtotheorganizer.TheboothsofChinaNationalTouristOffice(CNTO)andafewChinesetouristagencieswereamongthemostpopularones.Peopleevenqueueduptogetafreesouvenir,suchas12zodiacanimalbookmarksandpandacalendars.CynthiaChang,whogotamonkeybookmark,saidshehadalwayswantedtovisitherfather'shometownineastChina'sJiangsuProvince.AsasecondgenerationChineseAmerican,shesaidwhatattractedherthemostwasChina'shistoryandculture,aswellasfood."TheBayAreaisaveryimportantmarketforus.It'soneofthemostaffluentregionsinthecountryandpeopleherearegenerallymorefamiliarwithChineseculturebecauseofthelargeChinesecommunity,"saidEmmaMa,whoworksfortheLosAngelesofficeofCNTO,whichistaskedtopromotetourismtoChina.SpanningfromthewinecountrytoSiliconValley,theBayAreahasapopulationofover7millionpeopleinninecountiesand101cities,accordingtoBayAreaCensus.ThemedianhouseholdincomeinSanFranciscowas96,265U.S.dollarsin2017,comparedto61,372dollarsoftheU.S.medianhouseholdincome,statisticsoftheU.S.CensusBureaushowed.CNTOhasbeenanexhibitorateacheventoftheTravelandAdventureShowtopromotethetouristsourcesandtravelinformationtoAmericanpeople,accordingtoMa.Thisyear,CNTOworkedwiththreelocaltravelagencies--Chinatour.com,AccessAsiaToursandChinaTravelService,aswellastwoairlines--AirChinaandAirCanada--topresentvarioustravelroutesatdifferentpricepointstoChina."TheclassicdestinationsforthosetouristswhohaveneverbeentoChinaarethe'GoldenTriangle"--Beijing,Xi'anandShanghai,"saidNapioAsahara,managerofsalesandoperationsatAccessAsiaTours,aNorthAmerica-basedtourcompanyspecializedincustomizedprivatetourstoChina."ForthosewhoplantovisitChinaforthesecondorthirdtime,wehavenoticedanincreasinginterestinSilkRoad,orTibet,"shesaid.Asaharasaidhercompanyfocusesonhigh-endsmalltoursandmostoftheirclientsareretiredpeoplewhohavemoreleisuretimeandcanaffordhigherpricedtours.ThankstoCNTO'soverseaspromotionoftheSilkRoadtouristdestinationsinthepastfewyears,severaltravelitinerariesbasedontheancienttraderoutehavebeendevelopedandhighlightedinthebrochuresattheshow.AnothersuccessfulexampleisSichuanProvince,whichhasbeenactivelypromotingtheprovince'stouristsourcesintheUnitedStatesinthepasttwoyears,saidWang."Whenweattendedsuchtravelshows,wewereoftenaskedaboutpandaorSichuancuisine,"saidWang."Icanseethere'sanincreasinginterestintravelinginSichuan."China'sinboundtourismremainedsteadyin2018whenatotalof141millioninboundvisitorswererecorded,up1.2percentyear-on-year,accordingtofiguresfromChina'sMinistryofCultureandTourism.Inboundtouristsbroughtatotalof127.1billionU.S.dollarsinrevenuetothetourismsectorin2018,registeringa3percentincreasecomparedwith2017.Morethan5millionpeopletraveledbetweenChinaandtheUnitedStatesin2016,whichwasdesignatedasU.S.-ChinaTourismYearbybothcountries."TowelcomemoreAmericantouristsinChina,wetouroperatorsneedtodevelopin-depthtourexperience,"saidWang.Lastyear,hiscompanypartneredwithShandongProvincetoaddConfucius'hometownandQingdaototheirexistingtourroutesfromBeijingtoShanghai.Asidefrombeinga"timecapsuleofancientcultures,"Chinaalsoisa"monumentalstageshowcasingmodernmiracles,"saidWang."It'sauniqueexperienceforoverseastouriststoseethecontrastbetweentheancientChinesecultureanditsmodernentrepreneurialspirit."Chinawitnessedasurgeinthenumberofapplicationsforexit-entrypermitsonMonday,thefirstdayanewregulationtostreamlinerelatedapplicationprocedurestookeffect.About77,000exit-entrypermitapplicationsfromcitizenswithhouseholdregistrationfromelsewherewerehandledonMonday,including22,000forpassports,figuresfromtheNationalImmigrationAdministrationshow.Therewerealso24,000applicationsfortravelpassesforHongKongandMacaospecialadministrativeregionsaswellasTaiwanand31,000forgrouptourendorsementsforthethreeregions.Accordingtothenewregulation,Chinesecitizensonthemainland,regardlessofwheretheywerebornorlive,areabletoapplyfortheaforementionedtraveldocumentsatanyimmigrationadministrationsacrossthecountry.Citizensarenolongerrequiredtoreturntotheirhouseholdregistrationplacetoapplyforexit-entrypermits.ForeigncapitalflowstoChinaareexpectedtorisefromMondayafteraportionofthenation'snearly-trillionofonshorebondswereincludedinakeyglobalindex.OnMonday,China'srenminbi-denominatedgovernmentandpolicybanksecuritieswereincludedintheBloombergBarclaysGlobalAggregateIndex,aglobalfixed-incomeinvestmentbenchmark,whichcouldtriggermorecapitalinflowsintothecountryandprovidestabilitytocurrencyandfundborrowers.GlobalbankshavepredictedthattheBloombergBarclaysindexinclusionwillattract0billionto0billionofoverseasfundsforthenextfiveyears.Morethan67percentofthemarketparticipantsinAsiaarelikelytoincreasetheirinvestmentinChineseonshorebondsthisyear,drivenlargelybytheindexinclusion,saidarecentsurveyfromBloomberg,theUS-basedfinancialinformationprovider.TheStateAdministrationofForeignExchangesaidonFridaythatimprovingconvertibilityofthecapitalaccountwouldbeoneofthekeytasksthisyearsoastograduallyachievefreecross-bordercapitalflowsandfurtheropenthebondmarket.BloombergChairmanPeterGrauertoldChinaDailyinanexclusiveinterviewaweekagothattheindexinclusionwillmaketheChinesebondmarketmoreattractivetoglobalinvestorsandbringinmoreliquidity.Heexpectsmorepolicymeasurestobetakeninthesubsequentyears.ThesemeasuresincludeimprovingChina'screditratingssystemandcorporatedisclosurelevels,launchingnewindexproducts,suchasbondexchange-tradedfunds,andexpandinghedgingtoolstomanageforeignexchangeandinterestrisks,saidGrauer.Aftera20-monthprocess,therenminbi-denominatedgovernmentandpolicybankbondswillrepresentabout6to7percentoftheindex'scomponents,hesaid.Accordingtothecentralbank,China'sonshorebondmarketworthwas88trillionyuan(.12trillion)bytheendofFebruary."InternationalinvestorswanttoparticipateinthegrowthoftheChineseeconomy.Onewaytheycandothatisbyinvestinginfixed-incomeinstruments,"hesaid.Besides,theindexwillallowglobalinvestorstocompareperformancewiththeoverallsituation,akeyglobalbenchmark.Currently,China's10-yeartreasuryyieldsarehigherthanthatintheUnitedStates,GermanyandJapan,andtheirreturnsarehigherthanothereconomieswithsimilarcreditratings.Thatcoulddriveinvestordemandandprovidediversificationopportunitiestoglobalinvestors,accordingtoGrauer.InvestorsintheUnitedStateshaveconfidenceintheChinesefinancialmarket,hesaid."Ifyouwanttoplayontheglobalstage,youshouldhaveastakeonthegroundinChinaandbeagoodcorporatecitizenwithalong-termviewaboutSino-USrelations."IbelievetheopeningofChina'sfinancialmarketmaybeoneofthebiggestchangesinthehistoryofglobalcapitalmarkets,andoneofthemostexciting."TheinclusionofChinesedomesticdebtintheindexcouldpotentiallyleadtoabouttrillionoffundinflowsintotheChineseonshorebondmarket,accordingtoIvanChung,associatemanagingdirectorofMoody'sInvestorsService,aglobalratingscompany.BytheendofJanuary,foreignholdingsofChinesedomesticbondstotaled1.75trillionyuan,whichwasequivalentto2percentoftotaloutstandingonshorebonds,accordingtoMoody'sdata."AsinvestorsparticipateincreasinglyinandunderstandbettertheChineseonshorebondmarket,theywillfeelmorecomfortableincreasingtheirrenminbi-denominatedassetallocations,andexpandingtheirinvestmentstoothercreditbondslikemunicipalbonds,corporatebondsandasset-backedsecurities,"saidChung.Theamountofgovernmentandpolicybankbondsincustodyaccountstotaled47.86trillionyuanbytheendofFebruary,accordingtodatafromtheState-ownedclearinghouseChinaCentralDepositoryandClearing.Comparedwithtreasuriesandpolicybankbonds,Chinesecorporatebondsarenotsoattractivesofarfortheforeigninvestor,giventhecurrentlevelofcorporatedisclosureandgovernancequality.Concernsonpotentialdefaultrisksmighthavediscouragedthemtoincreaseholdingsinassetallocations.ZhouXiaochuan,formercentralbankgovernor,saidattheBoaoForumforAsiathatasChinaisfurtheropeningthetrilliononshorebondmarket,foreigninstitutionswillparticipatemoreintheChinesebondmarket,andtheywillincreaseinterestinunderwritingcorporatebonds.Theforeignexchangeregulatorshowedthatin2018,thenetinflowsofforeigncapitalintotheonshorebondmarketstoodat.7billion,upby1.4timesfromthelevelseenin2017."It(theinclusion)indicatestheorderlyopening-upoftheChinesecapitalmarket,andtheimprovementoffinancialmarketinfrastructure,"saidtheSAFE2018annualinternationalbalancereportreleasedonFriday.TouristsviewtheautumnsceneryattheMutianyuGreatWallinBeijing,capitalofChina,Oct.28,2018.(Xinhua/ChenYehua)PeopleintheSanFranciscoBayAreacontinuetoshowagrowinginterestinvisitingChinaandexploringthecountry'sculture,history,naturalwondersandlifestyles,saidtouroperatorsspecializedintheU.S.regionMonday.Atthejust-concludedannualBayAreaTravelandAdventureShowinSantaClara,Californiaovertheweekend,manyvisitorsstoppedattheboothofAlexWang,ownerofatravelagency.Theytookbrochuresoraskedhimquestionsaboutthetravelitinerariesthecompanyprovided."Wehaveattendedtheshowforseveralyearstopromoteourtravelproducts.There'sanincreasinginterestfromAmericanpeople,includingChineseAmericansintheBayArea,"saidWang,presidentofChinatour.comInternationalInc,aSouthernCalifornia-basedtouroperator.WithabigpictureofChina'sTempleofHeavenhangingattheboothasbackground,Wanghandedoutthousandsofbrochuresandflyersatthetwo-dayexhibitionovertheweekend."Weprovidebothhigh-endluxurytoursandbudgettoursforyoungpeople,"hesaid."Thoseretiredcustomerstendtochooselonghaultours,suchasYangtzeRivercruise,whichisverypopular.Youngpeopleareusuallyattractedtoshorttours,suchasweek-longtourtoBeijing,ShanghaiandXi'an."TheBayAreaTravelandAdventureShow,whichhasbeenheldfornineyearsintheregion,isamajorexhibitionfortouriststofindinformationabouttheirdesireddestinations.Theeventisprojectedtoattractbetween8,000and9,000peoplethisyear,accordingtotheorganizer.TheboothsofChinaNationalTouristOffice(CNTO)andafewChinesetouristagencieswereamongthemostpopularones.Peopleevenqueueduptogetafreesouvenir,suchas12zodiacanimalbookmarksandpandacalendars.CynthiaChang,whogotamonkeybookmark,saidshehadalwayswantedtovisitherfather'shometownineastChina'sJiangsuProvince.AsasecondgenerationChineseAmerican,shesaidwhatattractedherthemostwasChina'shistoryandculture,aswellasfood."TheBayAreaisaveryimportantmarketforus.It'soneofthemostaffluentregionsinthecountryandpeopleherearegenerallymorefamiliarwithChineseculturebecauseofthelargeChinesecommunity,"saidEmmaMa,whoworksfortheLosAngelesofficeofCNTO,whichistaskedtopromotetourismtoChina.SpanningfromthewinecountrytoSiliconValley,theBayAreahasapopulationofover7millionpeopleinninecountiesand101cities,accordingtoBayAreaCensus.ThemedianhouseholdincomeinSanFranciscowas96,265U.S.dollarsin2017,comparedto61,372dollarsoftheU.S.medianhouseholdincome,statisticsoftheU.S.CensusBureaushowed.CNTOhasbeenanexhibitorateacheventoftheTravelandAdventureShowtopromotethetouristsourcesandtravelinformationtoAmericanpeople,accordingtoMa.Thisyear,CNTOworkedwiththreelocaltravelagencies--Chinatour.com,AccessAsiaToursandChinaTravelService,aswellastwoairlines--AirChinaandAirCanada--topresentvarioustravelroutesatdifferentpricepointstoChina."TheclassicdestinationsforthosetouristswhohaveneverbeentoChinaarethe'GoldenTriangle"--Beijing,Xi'anandShanghai,"saidNapioAsahara,managerofsalesandoperationsatAccessAsiaTours,aNorthAmerica-basedtourcompanyspecializedincustomizedprivatetourstoChina."ForthosewhoplantovisitChinaforthesecondorthirdtime,wehavenoticedanincreasinginterestinSilkRoad,orTibet,"shesaid.Asaharasaidhercompanyfocusesonhigh-endsmalltoursandmostoftheirclientsareretiredpeoplewhohavemoreleisuretimeandcanaffordhigherpricedtours.ThankstoCNTO'soverseaspromotionoftheSilkRoadtouristdestinationsinthepastfewyears,severaltravelitinerariesbasedontheancienttraderoutehavebeendevelopedandhighlightedinthebrochuresattheshow.AnothersuccessfulexampleisSichuanProvince,whichhasbeenactivelypromotingtheprovince'stouristsourcesintheUnitedStatesinthepasttwoyears,saidWang."Whenweattendedsuchtravelshows,wewereoftenaskedaboutpandaorSichuancuisine,"saidWang."Icanseethere'sanincreasinginterestintravelinginSichuan."China'sinboundtourismremainedsteadyin2018whenatotalof141millioninboundvisitorswererecorded,up1.2percentyear-on-year,accordingtofiguresfromChina'sMinistryofCultureandTourism.Inboundtouristsbroughtatotalof127.1billionU.S.dollarsinrevenuetothetourismsectorin2018,registeringa3percentincreasecomparedwith2017.Morethan5millionpeopletraveledbetweenChinaandtheUnitedStatesin2016,whichwasdesignatedasU.S.-ChinaTourismYearbybothcountries."TowelcomemoreAmericantouristsinChina,wetouroperatorsneedtodevelopin-depthtourexperience,"saidWang.Lastyear,hiscompanypartneredwithShandongProvincetoaddConfucius'hometownandQingdaototheirexistingtourroutesfromBeijingtoShanghai.Asidefrombeinga"timecapsuleofancientcultures,"Chinaalsoisa"monumentalstageshowcasingmodernmiracles,"saidWang."It'sauniqueexperienceforoverseastouriststoseethecontrastbetweentheancientChinesecultureanditsmodernentrepreneurialspirit."

Chinawitnessedasurgeinthenumberofapplicationsforexit-entrypermitsonMonday,thefirstdayanewregulationtostreamlinerelatedapplicationprocedurestookeffect.About77,000exit-entrypermitapplicationsfromcitizenswithhouseholdregistrationfromelsewherewerehandledonMonday,including22,000forpassports,figuresfromtheNationalImmigrationAdministrationshow.Therewerealso24,000applicationsfortravelpassesforHongKongandMacaospecialadministrativeregionsaswellasTaiwanand31,000forgrouptourendorsementsforthethreeregions.Accordingtothenewregulation,Chinesecitizensonthemainland,regardlessofwheretheywerebornorlive,areabletoapplyfortheaforementionedtraveldocumentsatanyimmigrationadministrationsacrossthecountry.Citizensarenolongerrequiredtoreturntotheirhouseholdregistrationplacetoapplyforexit-entrypermits.TouristsviewtheautumnsceneryattheMutianyuGreatWallinBeijing,capitalofChina,Oct.28,2018.(Xinhua/ChenYehua)PeopleintheSanFranciscoBayAreacontinuetoshowagrowinginterestinvisitingChinaandexploringthecountry'sculture,history,naturalwondersandlifestyles,saidtouroperatorsspecializedintheU.S.regionMonday.Atthejust-concludedannualBayAreaTravelandAdventureShowinSantaClara,Californiaovertheweekend,manyvisitorsstoppedattheboothofAlexWang,ownerofatravelagency.Theytookbrochuresoraskedhimquestionsaboutthetravelitinerariesthecompanyprovided."Wehaveattendedtheshowforseveralyearstopromoteourtravelproducts.There'sanincreasinginterestfromAmericanpeople,includingChineseAmericansintheBayArea,"saidWang,presidentofChinatour.comInternationalInc,aSouthernCalifornia-basedtouroperator.WithabigpictureofChina'sTempleofHeavenhangingattheboothasbackground,Wanghandedoutthousandsofbrochuresandflyersatthetwo-dayexhibitionovertheweekend."Weprovidebothhigh-endluxurytoursandbudgettoursforyoungpeople,"hesaid."Thoseretiredcustomerstendtochooselonghaultours,suchasYangtzeRivercruise,whichisverypopular.Youngpeopleareusuallyattractedtoshorttours,suchasweek-longtourtoBeijing,ShanghaiandXi'an."TheBayAreaTravelandAdventureShow,whichhasbeenheldfornineyearsintheregion,isamajorexhibitionfortouriststofindinformationabouttheirdesireddestinations.Theeventisprojectedtoattractbetween8,000and9,000peoplethisyear,accordingtotheorganizer.TheboothsofChinaNationalTouristOffice(CNTO)andafewChinesetouristagencieswereamongthemostpopularones.Peopleevenqueueduptogetafreesouvenir,suchas12zodiacanimalbookmarksandpandacalendars.CynthiaChang,whogotamonkeybookmark,saidshehadalwayswantedtovisitherfather'shometownineastChina'sJiangsuProvince.AsasecondgenerationChineseAmerican,shesaidwhatattractedherthemostwasChina'shistoryandculture,aswellasfood."TheBayAreaisaveryimportantmarketforus.It'soneofthemostaffluentregionsinthecountryandpeopleherearegenerallymorefamiliarwithChineseculturebecauseofthelargeChinesecommunity,"saidEmmaMa,whoworksfortheLosAngelesofficeofCNTO,whichistaskedtopromotetourismtoChina.SpanningfromthewinecountrytoSiliconValley,theBayAreahasapopulationofover7millionpeopleinninecountiesand101cities,accordingtoBayAreaCensus.ThemedianhouseholdincomeinSanFranciscowas96,265U.S.dollarsin2017,comparedto61,372dollarsoftheU.S.medianhouseholdincome,statisticsoftheU.S.CensusBureaushowed.CNTOhasbeenanexhibitorateacheventoftheTravelandAdventureShowtopromotethetouristsourcesandtravelinformationtoAmericanpeople,accordingtoMa.Thisyear,CNTOworkedwiththreelocaltravelagencies--Chinatour.com,AccessAsiaToursandChinaTravelService,aswellastwoairlines--AirChinaandAirCanada--topresentvarioustravelroutesatdifferentpricepointstoChina."TheclassicdestinationsforthosetouristswhohaveneverbeentoChinaarethe'GoldenTriangle"--Beijing,Xi'anandShanghai,"saidNapioAsahara,managerofsalesandoperationsatAccessAsiaTours,aNorthAmerica-basedtourcompanyspecializedincustomizedprivatetourstoChina."ForthosewhoplantovisitChinaforthesecondorthirdtime,wehavenoticedanincreasinginterestinSilkRoad,orTibet,"shesaid.Asaharasaidhercompanyfocusesonhigh-endsmalltoursandmostoftheirclientsareretiredpeoplewhohavemoreleisuretimeandcanaffordhigherpricedtours.ThankstoCNTO'soverseaspromotionoftheSilkRoadtouristdestinationsinthepastfewyears,severaltravelitinerariesbasedontheancienttraderoutehavebeendevelopedandhighlightedinthebrochuresattheshow.AnothersuccessfulexampleisSichuanProvince,whichhasbeenactivelypromotingtheprovince'stouristsourcesintheUnitedStatesinthepasttwoyears,saidWang."Whenweattendedsuchtravelshows,wewereoftenaskedaboutpandaorSichuancuisine,"saidWang."Icanseethere'sanincreasinginterestintravelinginSichuan."China'sinboundtourismremainedsteadyin2018whenatotalof141millioninboundvisitorswererecorded,up1.2percentyear-on-year,accordingtofiguresfromChina'sMinistryofCultureandTourism.Inboundtouristsbroughtatotalof127.1billionU.S.dollarsinrevenuetothetourismsectorin2018,registeringa3percentincreasecomparedwith2017.Morethan5millionpeopletraveledbetweenChinaandtheUnitedStatesin2016,whichwasdesignatedasU.S.-ChinaTourismYearbybothcountries."TowelcomemoreAmericantouristsinChina,wetouroperatorsneedtodevelopin-depthtourexperience,"saidWang.Lastyear,hiscompanypartneredwithShandongProvincetoaddConfucius'hometownandQingdaototheirexistingtourroutesfromBeijingtoShanghai.Asidefrombeinga"timecapsuleofancientcultures,"Chinaalsoisa"monumentalstageshowcasingmodernmiracles,"saidWang."It'sauniqueexperienceforoverseastouriststoseethecontrastbetweentheancientChinesecultureanditsmodernentrepreneurialspirit."Special:TheZhuhaisectionoftheHongKong-Zhuhai-MacaoBridgeinGuangdongProvince.(PhotobyZhangYouqiong/ForChinaDaily)The"OutlineDevelopmentPlan"forGuangdong-HongKong-MacaoGreaterBayArea,releasedrecently,aimstomaketheGBAaworldclassscienceandtechnologyinnovationcenter.ButhowcanGuangdongprovince,andtheHongKongandMacaospecialadministrativeregions,whichhavedifferentpoliticalsystemsand,toacertainextent,cultures,collaborateseamlesslytocreatesuchaninnovationcenterWebelievethatwhilethemarketwillbeakeydrivingforcefortheGBA'sdevelopment,thegovernmenthastoplaythekeyroleofcoordinatorandadministrativeguide.Themarketdoesplayavitalroleineconomicdevelopment,butavisionaryanddeterminedgovernmentisneededtosupplementthemarketandensurecoordinateddevelopment.First,agovernment-coordinatedplanwillpreventtheduplicationofinfrastructurefacilitiesandcut-throatcompetitionintheneighboringcities.Andmutualleveragingandinter-citycollaborationwillcreateadditionalvalueforallthethreeregionsgiventhenatureoftheirrespectiveeconomies.TheTokyoBayArea,too,facedasimilarchallenge,whichtheJapanesegovernmenttackledthroughacoordinatedplan.ThesameistruefortheSanFranciscoBayArea.Butinthelatter'scase,NGOssuchastheBayAreaCouncil,ratherthantheUnitedStatesfederalgovernment,helpedcoordinatecross-countyinfrastructureprojectssuchasrailwaysandportswiththesupportofthecountygovernments.Second,technologyandinnovationarevitalareasthegovernmentsofGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoshouldplayanimportantrolein.Theyshouldfundresearchinhighereducation,withoutwhichbuddingtalentscannotbetapped.Andsincetechnologicalinnovationprojectscarrygreatfinancialrisks,thegovernmentsshouldshoulderamajorpartofthoserisksbyactingasdefactoinsurers.Helpingentrepreneurstogetloansandprovidingthemwithfruitfuladvicearetwoareasinwhichthegovernmentsshouldplayacriticalrole.Bysodoing,theycanactasacatalystfortheGBA'seconomicgrowth.Financeisthebloodofanymodernenterprise,moresoforstart-ups.Butundertheexistingsystem,banksandfinancialinstitutionsintheGBAmaynotprovideloanstostart-upsbecausestart-upsareusually"lightinassets".Ofcourse,start-upscanreceivefundingfromventurecapitalcompanies.Butventurecapitalcompaniesusuallylookforveryhighreturnwithinafixedperiodoftime,whichnotallstart-upscanguarantee.Also,somejointventurecompaniesmaydemandequityinstart-upseitherintheformofconvertibleloansordirectequityinvestment,whichmanystart-upsmaynotagreetoforfearoflosingcontroloftheirbusinesses.Toovercomethesedifficulties,thegovernmentsofGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoshouldsupplementtheirsupportmodelssuchasgrants,incubationandindustryparksandtaxincentivesbyestablishingaplatformforfinancingwherethegovernmentshoulderssomeoftheriskandprovidesco-investment.Theycouldbeginbyprofessionallyassessingthedevelopmentopportunitiesandmarketpotentialofthecompanies,whichwillnotonlyhelpthestart-upstoovercometheirfinancialchallenges,butalsoinvestinemergingindustriesintheregion.Thegovernmentsshouldalsotreatcarefullywhenitcomestotakingmeasurestobridgetheoldindustrieswiththenewonesandprovideguidanceandincentivesforthetwotoworktogether.AttheendofthedaythegovernmentsandthemarketshouldnotberegardedastwoideologicallyopposingforcesfortheGBA.InarecentarticleinTheNewYorkTimes,JamalleBouiehaswritten:"Theinstitutionswhichprovidehealth,educationandwelfareservicesarewhollyexemptfromthemarket.Therighttoparticipateindirectmanagementoftheworkunitsoperatinginthemarketisderivedfromlabor.Therighttoparticipateindirectmanagementoftheworkunitsexemptwhollyorpartlyfromthemarketisderivedproportionallyfromlabor,ownership,andconsumptionoftheprovidedservicesandutilities."Theonlycomponent"whollyexemptfromthemarket"intheGBA'sinitialphaseshouldbegovernmentplanning,withoutwhichtheGBAcannotdevelopintoascienceandtechnologyinnovativecenter.WitmanHungisamemberoftheacademiccommitteeofChinaSilkRoadiValleyResearchInstitute;andLiangHaimingisthedeanofHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstituteandchairmanoftheChinaSilkRoadiValleyResearchInstitute.Theviewsdon'tnecessarilyrepresentthoseofChinaDaily.

Chinawitnessedasurgeinthenumberofapplicationsforexit-entrypermitsonMonday,thefirstdayanewregulationtostreamlinerelatedapplicationprocedurestookeffect.About77,000exit-entrypermitapplicationsfromcitizenswithhouseholdregistrationfromelsewherewerehandledonMonday,including22,000forpassports,figuresfromtheNationalImmigrationAdministrationshow.Therewerealso24,000applicationsfortravelpassesforHongKongandMacaospecialadministrativeregionsaswellasTaiwanand31,000forgrouptourendorsementsforthethreeregions.Accordingtothenewregulation,Chinesecitizensonthemainland,regardlessofwheretheywerebornorlive,areabletoapplyfortheaforementionedtraveldocumentsatanyimmigrationadministrationsacrossthecountry.Citizensarenolongerrequiredtoreturntotheirhouseholdregistrationplacetoapplyforexit-entrypermits.ForeigncapitalflowstoChinaareexpectedtorisefromMondayafteraportionofthenation'snearly-trillionofonshorebondswereincludedinakeyglobalindex.OnMonday,China'srenminbi-denominatedgovernmentandpolicybanksecuritieswereincludedintheBloombergBarclaysGlobalAggregateIndex,aglobalfixed-incomeinvestmentbenchmark,whichcouldtriggermorecapitalinflowsintothecountryandprovidestabilitytocurrencyandfundborrowers.GlobalbankshavepredictedthattheBloombergBarclaysindexinclusionwillattract0billionto0billionofoverseasfundsforthenextfiveyears.Morethan67percentofthemarketparticipantsinAsiaarelikelytoincreasetheirinvestmentinChineseonshorebondsthisyear,drivenlargelybytheindexinclusion,saidarecentsurveyfromBloomberg,theUS-basedfinancialinformationprovider.TheStateAdministrationofForeignExchangesaidonFridaythatimprovingconvertibilityofthecapitalaccountwouldbeoneofthekeytasksthisyearsoastograduallyachievefreecross-bordercapitalflowsandfurtheropenthebondmarket.BloombergChairmanPeterGrauertoldChinaDailyinanexclusiveinterviewaweekagothattheindexinclusionwillmaketheChinesebondmarketmoreattractivetoglobalinvestorsandbringinmoreliquidity.Heexpectsmorepolicymeasurestobetakeninthesubsequentyears.ThesemeasuresincludeimprovingChina'screditratingssystemandcorporatedisclosurelevels,launchingnewindexproducts,suchasbondexchange-tradedfunds,andexpandinghedgingtoolstomanageforeignexchangeandinterestrisks,saidGrauer.Aftera20-monthprocess,therenminbi-denominatedgovernmentandpolicybankbondswillrepresentabout6to7percentoftheindex'scomponents,hesaid.Accordingtothecentralbank,China'sonshorebondmarketworthwas88trillionyuan(.12trillion)bytheendofFebruary."InternationalinvestorswanttoparticipateinthegrowthoftheChineseeconomy.Onewaytheycandothatisbyinvestinginfixed-incomeinstruments,"hesaid.Besides,theindexwillallowglobalinvestorstocompareperformancewiththeoverallsituation,akeyglobalbenchmark.Currently,China's10-yeartreasuryyieldsarehigherthanthatintheUnitedStates,GermanyandJapan,andtheirreturnsarehigherthanothereconomieswithsimilarcreditratings.Thatcoulddriveinvestordemandandprovidediversificationopportunitiestoglobalinvestors,accordingtoGrauer.InvestorsintheUnitedStateshaveconfidenceintheChinesefinancialmarket,hesaid."Ifyouwanttoplayontheglobalstage,youshouldhaveastakeonthegroundinChinaandbeagoodcorporatecitizenwithalong-termviewaboutSino-USrelations."IbelievetheopeningofChina'sfinancialmarketmaybeoneofthebiggestchangesinthehistoryofglobalcapitalmarkets,andoneofthemostexciting."TheinclusionofChinesedomesticdebtintheindexcouldpotentiallyleadtoabouttrillionoffundinflowsintotheChineseonshorebondmarket,accordingtoIvanChung,associatemanagingdirectorofMoody'sInvestorsService,aglobalratingscompany.BytheendofJanuary,foreignholdingsofChinesedomesticbondstotaled1.75trillionyuan,whichwasequivalentto2percentoftotaloutstandingonshorebonds,accordingtoMoody'sdata."AsinvestorsparticipateincreasinglyinandunderstandbettertheChineseonshorebondmarket,theywillfeelmorecomfortableincreasingtheirrenminbi-denominatedassetallocations,andexpandingtheirinvestmentstoothercreditbondslikemunicipalbonds,corporatebondsandasset-backedsecurities,"saidChung.Theamountofgovernmentandpolicybankbondsincustodyaccountstotaled47.86trillionyuanbytheendofFebruary,accordingtodatafromtheState-ownedclearinghouseChinaCentralDepositoryandClearing.Comparedwithtreasuriesandpolicybankbonds,Chinesecorporatebondsarenotsoattractivesofarfortheforeigninvestor,giventhecurrentlevelofcorporatedisclosureandgovernancequality.Concernsonpotentialdefaultrisksmighthavediscouragedthemtoincreaseholdingsinassetallocations.ZhouXiaochuan,formercentralbankgovernor,saidattheBoaoForumforAsiathatasChinaisfurtheropeningthetrilliononshorebondmarket,foreigninstitutionswillparticipatemoreintheChinesebondmarket,andtheywillincreaseinterestinunderwritingcorporatebonds.Theforeignexchangeregulatorshowedthatin2018,thenetinflowsofforeigncapitalintotheonshorebondmarketstoodat.7billion,upby1.4timesfromthelevelseenin2017."It(theinclusion)indicatestheorderlyopening-upoftheChinesecapitalmarket,andtheimprovementoffinancialmarketinfrastructure,"saidtheSAFE2018annualinternationalbalancereportreleasedonFriday.Special:TheZhuhaisectionoftheHongKong-Zhuhai-MacaoBridgeinGuangdongProvince.(PhotobyZhangYouqiong/ForChinaDaily)The"OutlineDevelopmentPlan"forGuangdong-HongKong-MacaoGreaterBayArea,releasedrecently,aimstomaketheGBAaworldclassscienceandtechnologyinnovationcenter.ButhowcanGuangdongprovince,andtheHongKongandMacaospecialadministrativeregions,whichhavedifferentpoliticalsystemsand,toacertainextent,cultures,collaborateseamlesslytocreatesuchaninnovationcenterWebelievethatwhilethemarketwillbeakeydrivingforcefortheGBA'sdevelopment,thegovernmenthastoplaythekeyroleofcoordinatorandadministrativeguide.Themarketdoesplayavitalroleineconomicdevelopment,butavisionaryanddeterminedgovernmentisneededtosupplementthemarketandensurecoordinateddevelopment.First,agovernment-coordinatedplanwillpreventtheduplicationofinfrastructurefacilitiesandcut-throatcompetitionintheneighboringcities.Andmutualleveragingandinter-citycollaborationwillcreateadditionalvalueforallthethreeregionsgiventhenatureoftheirrespectiveeconomies.TheTokyoBayArea,too,facedasimilarchallenge,whichtheJapanesegovernmenttackledthroughacoordinatedplan.ThesameistruefortheSanFranciscoBayArea.Butinthelatter'scase,NGOssuchastheBayAreaCouncil,ratherthantheUnitedStatesfederalgovernment,helpedcoordinatecross-countyinfrastructureprojectssuchasrailwaysandportswiththesupportofthecountygovernments.Second,technologyandinnovationarevitalareasthegovernmentsofGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoshouldplayanimportantrolein.Theyshouldfundresearchinhighereducation,withoutwhichbuddingtalentscannotbetapped.Andsincetechnologicalinnovationprojectscarrygreatfinancialrisks,thegovernmentsshouldshoulderamajorpartofthoserisksbyactingasdefactoinsurers.Helpingentrepreneurstogetloansandprovidingthemwithfruitfuladvicearetwoareasinwhichthegovernmentsshouldplayacriticalrole.Bysodoing,theycanactasacatalystfortheGBA'seconomicgrowth.Financeisthebloodofanymodernenterprise,moresoforstart-ups.Butundertheexistingsystem,banksandfinancialinstitutionsintheGBAmaynotprovideloanstostart-upsbecausestart-upsareusually"lightinassets".Ofcourse,start-upscanreceivefundingfromventurecapitalcompanies.Butventurecapitalcompaniesusuallylookforveryhighreturnwithinafixedperiodoftime,whichnotallstart-upscanguarantee.Also,somejointventurecompaniesmaydemandequityinstart-upseitherintheformofconvertibleloansordirectequityinvestment,whichmanystart-upsmaynotagreetoforfearoflosingcontroloftheirbusinesses.Toovercomethesedifficulties,thegovernmentsofGuangdong,HongKongandMacaoshouldsupplementtheirsupportmodelssuchasgrants,incubationandindustryparksandtaxincentivesbyestablishingaplatformforfinancingwherethegovernmentshoulderssomeoftheriskandprovidesco-investment.Theycouldbeginbyprofessionallyassessingthedevelopmentopportunitiesandmarketpotentialofthecompanies,whichwillnotonlyhelpthestart-upstoovercometheirfinancialchallenges,butalsoinvestinemergingindustriesintheregion.Thegovernmentsshouldalsotreatcarefullywhenitcomestotakingmeasurestobridgetheoldindustrieswiththenewonesandprovideguidanceandincentivesforthetwotoworktogether.AttheendofthedaythegovernmentsandthemarketshouldnotberegardedastwoideologicallyopposingforcesfortheGBA.InarecentarticleinTheNewYorkTimes,JamalleBouiehaswritten:"Theinstitutionswhichprovidehealth,educationandwelfareservicesarewhollyexemptfromthemarket.Therighttoparticipateindirectmanagementoftheworkunitsoperatinginthemarketisderivedfromlabor.Therighttoparticipateindirectmanagementoftheworkunitsexemptwhollyorpartlyfromthemarketisderivedproportionallyfromlabor,ownership,andconsumptionoftheprovidedservicesandutilities."Theonlycomponent"whollyexemptfromthemarket"intheGBA'sinitialphaseshouldbegovernmentplanning,withoutwhichtheGBAcannotdevelopintoascienceandtechnologyinnovativecenter.WitmanHungisamemberoftheacademiccommitteeofChinaSilkRoadiValleyResearchInstitute;andLiangHaimingisthedeanofHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstituteandchairmanoftheChinaSilkRoadiValleyResearchInstitute.Theviewsdon'tnecessarilyrepresentthoseofChinaDaily.

土耳其部分军官企图发动军事政变 #标题分割#  背景资料:土耳其历次军事政变  1960年至1997年间,土耳其军队就发动了4次军事政变,平均每十年一次。算上7月15日的政变,在50多年间已有5次政变,且均由军方发动。  1960年4月27日,土耳其武装部队总参谋长杰马勒古尔塞勒将军发动政变,推翻时任曼德列斯政权,并出任临时总统、总理兼国防部长。1961年10月大选后,军人政权还政于民。  1971年3月12日,因不满土耳其各种激进组织出现,土耳其军方向苏奈总统和国民议会提交了一份备忘录,要求建立“一个强大的可信赖的政府”。当天,1965年开始执政的德米雷尔正义党政府被迫辞职,史称“备忘录政变”。  1980年4月,土耳其选举期间,由于左右势力势均力敌,选举旷日持久,经济形势每况愈下。同年9月12日,土耳其武装部队总参谋长科南埃夫伦发动武装政变,宣布解散议会和内阁,成立国家安全委员会,接管国家权力。埃夫伦将军自任国家元首,建立军政府。  1997年6月18日,在军方的强大压力下,宗教色彩浓厚的总理埃尔巴坎被迫辞去职务。  2016年7月15日,土耳其军方部分人士发动政变,土耳其总理16日称,政府已经掌控局势,逮捕上百名参与政变的军人。土耳其部分军官企图发动军事政变 #标题分割#  背景资料:土耳其历次军事政变  1960年至1997年间,土耳其军队就发动了4次军事政变,平均每十年一次。算上7月15日的政变,在50多年间已有5次政变,且均由军方发动。  1960年4月27日,土耳其武装部队总参谋长杰马勒古尔塞勒将军发动政变,推翻时任曼德列斯政权,并出任临时总统、总理兼国防部长。1961年10月大选后,军人政权还政于民。  1971年3月12日,因不满土耳其各种激进组织出现,土耳其军方向苏奈总统和国民议会提交了一份备忘录,要求建立“一个强大的可信赖的政府”。当天,1965年开始执政的德米雷尔正义党政府被迫辞职,史称“备忘录政变”。  1980年4月,土耳其选举期间,由于左右势力势均力敌,选举旷日持久,经济形势每况愈下。同年9月12日,土耳其武装部队总参谋长科南埃夫伦发动武装政变,宣布解散议会和内阁,成立国家安全委员会,接管国家权力。埃夫伦将军自任国家元首,建立军政府。  1997年6月18日,在军方的强大压力下,宗教色彩浓厚的总理埃尔巴坎被迫辞去职务。  2016年7月15日,土耳其军方部分人士发动政变,土耳其总理16日称,政府已经掌控局势,逮捕上百名参与政变的军人。




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